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Methods of birth control

Birth control is a process of preventing pregnancy by fertility control and contraception. Effective and safe birth control methods are there for family planning.
Sterilization is an effective method of birth control. It is done by vasectomy in males. In females, methods such as tubal ligation, intrauterine devices (IUDs), implantable contraceptives like pills, patches, and vaginal rings are used.
Usage of barriers such as condoms, contraceptive sponges, diaphragms, spermicides, withdrawal before ejaculation by males are some of the least effective birth control methods.

1. Sterilization
Tubal ligation (women) and Vasectomy (men)
No long term side effects
Reduced risk of ovarian cancer by tubal ligation
After these birth control methods, if the men or women desire for a reversal, it is possible to reconnect the fallopian tubes by a tubal reversal or vasectomy reversal for reconnecting the vasa deferentia.

2. Hormonal Birth Control
Inhibits ovulation and fertilization
Oral pills, under skin implants, patches, injections, intrauterine devices and vaginal rings can be used
Hormonal contraceptives are available only for women.
Combined oral contraceptive pill and progestogen-only pill are the two types of oral birth control techniques.
The risk of venous and arterial blood clots are linked with Combined oral contraceptive pill, so not suggested for women over 35 years of age with smoking habits.
Progestin-only pills, IUDs and injections are unrelated to the increased risk of blood clots
Progestin-only pills, improve menstrual cycle and will not affect milk production.
Irregular bleeding by progestin-only technique has been reported.

3. Barriers
Barrier contraceptives stop pregnancy by physical prevention of the sperm from entering the uterus.
Male condoms, female condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps and contraceptive sponges with spermicide are examples.

4. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)
Small ‘T’ shaped devices, containing either Copper or levonorgestrel.
These are inserted into the uterus.
One of the most effective types of reversible contraception.
IUDs can be inserted right away after delivery as they do not affect breastfeeding.

5. Behavioral
It involves the control of timing or intercourse method to avoid the entry of sperm into the female reproductive tract.

6. Fertility Awareness
Involves the identification of most fertile days of the menstrual cycle and avoids unguarded intercourse.
Fertility determination can be done by observing the temperature of basal body, cervical secretions or the day of the cycle.

7. Withdrawal
It is the practice of finishing the intercourse before ejaculation by “pulling out”.
The main risk of this method is sometimes, a man may not perform the exercise in a timely way.

8. Abstinence
Total abstinence is the avoidance of all sexual activity
The term usually means self –denial from vaginal intercourse.

9. Lactation
The method is called lactational amenorrhea
A woman’s natural postpartum infertility is used in this method, which occurs after delivery.

10. Emergency
Emergency contraceptives are medications like high dose birth control pills, levonorgestrel etc.

11. Dual Protection
This method will prevent both sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.
Here the condoms can be used either alone or with another birth control method or by the evading of penetrative sex.

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