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Diabetes Mellitus

The diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of several etiologies that share the phenotype of increased high blood glucose level (hyperglycaemia). It is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with impaired metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein caused due to defects in insulin secretion, utilization of glucose, glucose production etc. The long-term effect of diabetes mellitus causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in various organs that damages, dysfunction and causes failure of organs. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with dysregulation in metabolism causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in various organs that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. It leads to cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), nontraumatic lower extremity amputations, and adult blindness. It also predisposes to cardiovascular diseases. With an increasing incidence worldwide, DM will be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for the foreseeable future.

Diabetes mellitus show characteristic symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and weight loss. In its most severe cases DM may develop, ketoacidosis or a non-ketotic hyperosmolar state that leads to state of unconsciousness, coma and, if not treated at this stage causes, death. Often symptoms are unnoticed, not severe, or may be absent, and consequently DM causes pathological and functional changes before it is been diagnosed. Increased number of prevalence of DM in the developing countries is predominantly associated with change in life style and obesity. Increase in understanding of pathogenesis of DM and its complications and in prevention and therapy of DM are critical to meeting this challenge.

Diabetes malitus is broadly classied as Type-1, Type-2 and gestational diabetes. Type- 1 is caused due to lack of ability to produce Insulin that results from complete destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas or in ability to produce insulin. Patient with type 1 DM needs to be supplemented with insulin. Type 1 DM is fatal if left untreated. Gestational diabetes is found in non- diabetic women usually during their third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes needs treatment, and usually disappear after delivery. But in some cases gestational diabetes may lead to type-2 diabetes later. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Type 2 diabetes can initially be controlled by exercises and proper diet. In chronic type 2 diabetes if cannot be controlled by exercise and diet, medications should be started. If Type 2 diabetes is left untreated it may end up fatal.

Keep off those salty snacks if you want your organs to stay healthy

A review paper co-authored by two faculty members in the University of Delaware College of Health Sciences and two physicians at Christiana Care Health System provides evidence that even in the absence of an increase in blood pressure, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys and brain.

Potential effects on the arteries include reduced function of the endothelium, which is the inner lining of blood vessels. Endothelial cells mediate a number of processes, including coagulation, platelet adhesion and immune function. Elevated dietary sodium can also increase arterial stiffness.

High dietary sodium can also lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, or enlargement of the muscle tissue that makes up the wall of the heart's main pumping chamber, added the scientists. Regarding the kidneys, evidence suggests that high sodium is associated with reduced renal function, a decline observed with only a minimal increase in blood pressure.

Finally, sodium may also affect the sympathetic nervous system, which activates what is often termed the fight-or-flight response.

Approximately 70 percent of the sodium in our diets comes from processed foods, including items that we don't typically think of as salty such as breads and cereals. Also, restaurant food typically contains more salt than dishes prepared at home, so eating out less can help reduce salt intake.

Daily dose of one minute walk can be lifesaving

So it turns out the price of healthy living is really not that much, as a mere 60 seconds walk per day can help cut the risk of a heart attack or stroke.

The study of more than 1,000 elderly people showed that inactive people who often do small doses of daily exercise combined with a healthy diet, cut their blood pressure and cholesterol and live a long and healthy life, the Daily Express reported.

Housework and gardening chores can also make a person live longer. The breakthrough comes after tests showed it is better to keep moving throughout the day rather than undertake an intense burst of exercise followed by rest.

Lead researcher Dr Thomas Buford at the University of Florida said that encouraging individuals to just reduce the amount of time they spend being sedentary may have important cardiovascular benefits. Official UK guidelines say people should do 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise every week - but 3 in four Britons fail to achieve this target.

June Davison, senior cardiac nurse at the British Heart Foundation, said that it was already known that older adults who participate in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits, and they should just try to be active daily and should try to move regularly through the day and minimise time spent being sedentary for extended periods.

Here is how blood group O protects against malaria

We are aware of the fact that malaria parasites conquerers the human immune system while being in human red blood cells. According to a very new study, blood type O provides protection and resistance against malaria.

The study suggests that a protein secreted by parasites called RIFIN, plays an important role in providing protection against malaria in people who have blood group O.

A team of Scandinavian scientists explains the mechanisms behind the protection that blood type O provides and suggests that the selective pressure imposed by malaria may contribute to the variable global distribution of ABO blood groups in the human population.

It has long been known that people with blood type O are protected against severe malaria, while those with other types, such as A, often fall into a coma and die. Unpacking the mechanisms behind this has been one of the main goals of malaria research.

Scientists led from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have now identified a new and important piece of the puzzle by describing the key part played by the RIFIN protein.

Using data from different kinds of experiment on cell cultures and animals, they show how the Plasmodium falciparum parasite secretes RIFIN, and how the protein makes its way to the surface of the blood cell, where it acts like glue. The team also demonstrates how it bonds strongly with the surface of type A blood cells, but only weakly to type O.

Delhi Govt acts tough against ads of tobacco products

Delhi Government has written to various tobacco companies asking them to remove advertisement boards from shops and warned them against free distribution of boards or counters having tobacco ads among vendors.

Section 5 of the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003 prohibits direct and indirect advertisements of tobacco products including at point of sale.

The Health Department had also written to Delhi Metro Rail Corporation requesting it to remove such advertisements from trains and stations following which it issued a circular to various advertisement agencies and also removed some ads.

"We have also written to the central government, DIP/DAVP and Advertisement Standard Council of India to stop surrogate advertisements of few tobacco brands which are happening on radio, TV, newspapers, etc. In the name of pan masala and mouth-fresheners, etc.," said Arora , Additional Director (Health). On February 28, the department had undertaken a massive awareness and enforcement drive in the city during which 60 shops were raided, 31 vendors were challaned and court proceedings were initiated against 12 repeat offenders.

"As part of the drive, several ads were removed from shops and other parts of the city and challans of amount Rs 9,500 were issued to vendors for violations of rule.

"Around 450 people including tobacco vendors and general public were sensitised on tobacco related issues. Also, vendors were strictly warned against display of such tobacco products," said Arora.

It is official!! Losing weight is no piece of cake

We all find it difficult to meet our weight loss resolutions, and now a new study has made it official that it is indeed tough to shed those extra kilos.

New studies by McMaster University researchers reviewed hundreds of recent studies published in the past decade about the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity among children, among adults and about keeping lost weight off.

There were small improvements in weight outcomes. The programs that work best targeted school-aged children and youth, were delivered in educational settings, included both diet and exercise and lasted 12 weeks to a year.
Regarding treating overweight/obesity among children and youth, a review of 31 studies found: Evidence showed that enrolment in a program that focuses on changes in diet, exercise and lifestyle can help reduce weight and, more importantly, enrolment in such a program also improves health and quality of life in children and adolescents. However, the permanence of this weight loss has not been well studied.

Almost no trials have been conducted to investigate programs that help normal-weight adults maintain their normal weight. A single small study conducted in the U.S. in the 1980s showed benefits from a 12-month education and incentive-based program.

Doing some activity is better than doing nothing. Adults who took part in some form of treatment had, on aver age, a three kilogram (or seven pound) greater weight loss than adults who did not.

A guide to drop in Testosterone

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Diabetes and oral health

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Recommended vaccines for adults

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Alcoholism

Alcoholism is a health condition, characterized by difficulty in control...

Read more

Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most common medical conditions. This type of pai...

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Second Hand Smoking (Passive Smoking)

It is a very popular saying, where there is a smoke, there is a fire&rsq...

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Alcohol poisoning

Alcohol poisoning is one of the life threatening complications of chroni...

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Diabetes Mellitus

The diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of several etiologies that share the phenotype of increased high blood glucose level (hyperglycaemia). It is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with impaired metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and pr...
Read more

Amazing Fruits for Radiant Skin

Among some of the most amazing fruits, the wonderful banana can assist in preserving the suppleness of your skin; strawberries provide you with exfoliation together with detoxification. In a nutshell, fresh fruits can assist in accomplishing vibra...
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