A Production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. The human consumption of dairy products is sourced primarily from the milk of Cows, Goats. Buffaloes etc.
Milk is obtained from many different sources though cow's milk is the most popular in many countries including India.
Milk has got low acidity and high nutrient content which makes it a suitable breeding ground for bacteria, which also comprises of disease causing pathogens. The sole idea behind processing milk, is to remove bacteria from the animals, utensils, hands and insects which may contaminate the milk.
Milk provides many of the nutrients which are considered to essential for the growth of human body. It is an excellent source of protein and has abundance of minerals, vitamins, particularly calcium. There are also some fermented milk products available in market such as yogurt, curd, sour milk etc.
Fermented products can be included in diet to help prevent illness caused due to the presence of yeast and bacteria. During fermentation, lactic acid producing bacteria breaks down lactose and in doing so eliminates the cause of irritation.
Some of the most prefered and widely used milk products are as follows:
1. Curd: Curd is a dairy product which is made by curdling or coagulating milk with any edible acidic substances such as lemon juice or vinegar and then allowing it to set.
2. Butter: Butter is obtained by churning fresh or fermented milk or cream. It's a dairy product that consists of milk proteins, butterfat and water. It is used as a spread and in cooking such as baking, sauce making and pan frying.
3. Buttermilk: Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.
4. Cheese: Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows.